The move occurred a day after McCarthy lasted three innings and threw three wild pitches in the second inning of the Dodgers' 12-6 win over the Colorado Rockies.
McCarthy is 6-3 with a 3.25 ERA in 13 starts this season after being limited to nine starts last season.
The injury is not expected to sideline McCarthy more than 10 to 12 days, according to manager Dave Roberts.
Besides putting McCarthy on the disabled list, the Dodgers also optioned right-hander Ross Stripling to Triple-A Oklahoma City and recalled right-hander Brock Stewart and outfielder Trayce Thompson from Triple-A.
Striping pitched two innings Sunday. In 22 appearances, he is 0-3 with one save and a 4.03 ERA.
Stewart threw three scoreless innings for a save against the New York Mets on June 20 in his lone major league appearance of the season. He went 0-1 with a 5.19 ERA in four minor league starts this season.
Thompson went 0-for-8 in three April games with Los Angeles. He hit .211 with a .273 on-base percentage, seven homers and 25 RBIs in 62 games for Oklahoma City.