In winning the Regions Tradition on Sunday in Birmingham, Ala., for the second straight year, Langer equaled Nicklaus with his eighth Champions major championship.
The 59-year-old did it in impressive fashion on Greystone Golf & Country Club's Founders Course after entering the weekend six shots out of the lead.
Trailing Fred Funk by two strokes going into the final round, Langer closed with an 8-under-par 64 and finished at 20-under 268 for a five-shot victory.
One of the turning points was at No. 12 when Langer birdied the 12th hole and Funk stumbled to a triple bogey to take a three-stroke advantage.
Langer went on to secure his first come-from-behind victory on the final day in a major, and it came after the German won the tournament by six shots a year ago. Langer now has won 31 times on the 50-and-over tour.
Funk ended up tied for fourth after a final-round 72 with Marco Dawson (66).
John Daly, who won the Insperity Invitational last week, shot a 65 to move into a tie for 32nd.
The Regions Tradition is one of five PGA Champions Tour majors that will be played in the next seven tour tournaments. The Senior PGA Championship is next week at Trump National Golf Club in Washington, D.C.