"On Saturday night, after driving back from the Houston Open, I started feeling a bit of a sore throat and a cough," Garcia said in a statement. "The symptoms stayed with me on Sunday morning, so I decided to get tested for COVID-19, and so did my wife, Angela.
"Thankfully, she tested negative, but I didn't. After 21 years of not missing a major championship, I will sadly miss the Masters this week. The important thing is that my family and I are feeling good. We'll come back stronger and give the green jacket a go next April."
The Spaniard hasn't missed a major championship since the 1999 U.S. Open.
Garcia didn't make the third-round cut at the Houston Open on Friday. Carlos Ortiz won the tournament at 13-under par on Sunday at Memorial Park Golf Course.
Garcia has missed the third-round cut in three of six tournaments this season. He won the Sanderson Farms Championship in October. He also missed the third-round cut at the 2019 Masters.
The PGA Tour season continues with the 2020 Masters, which runs from Thursday through Sunday in Augusta, Ga.