Woods finished 5-over after 36 holes, trailing leader Brooks Koepka by 17 strokes. It was only the ninth time he has missed the cut in a major as a pro.
"Well, it's a nice problem to have," Woods told reporters Friday. "You know, I've enjoyed being the Masters champion again and the PGA was a quick turnaround, and unfortunately I just didn't play well. I didn't do all the little things I need to do correctly to post good scores and put myself in position to shoot good scores."
Woods, playing in his second major this year after winning at Augusta in April, missed a cut at a major after winning the previous one for the first time in his career. He was the first reigning major champion to miss the next major's cut since Zach Johnson, who won the 2015 Open and missed the cut at the PGA Championship.
Woods, who battled an illness Wednesday, had two double-bogeys Thursday and hit only three out of 14 fairways in Round 2. He recorded bogeys on the first three holes to begin the back nine Friday.
Koepka, who was Woods' playing partner, continued his red-hot start with a 5-under 65 in the second round. He coasted through a bogey-free round of 63 that set the course record at Bethpage Black in the first round.
After shooting a 12-under 128 over the first 36 holes, which is the lowest 36-hole score in PGA Championship history, Koepka holds a seven-shot advantage over the field. It's the largest lead after 36 holes in PGA Championship history.