Also released on Tuesday were infielder Munenori Kawasaki and reliever Manny Parra.
The Cubs will attempt to sign all three players to minor-league deals.
Chicago also placed utilityman Javier Baez (thumb) on the 15-day disabled list.
Baez has a deep bruise on his left thumb and manager Joe Maddon doesn't believe Baez is fully healed.
The releases of the three veterans were made before a Tuesday deadline that would have required the Cubs to pay a $100,000 bonus to keep them in their organization.
Kawasaki and Parra would start the season at Triple-A Iowa if they sign a minor-league deal with Chicago. Victornio has a calf injury and would go to extended spring training.