The Patriots have been hit hard by injuries at running back this season, with the latest casualty being LeGarrette Blount a week ago after he suffered a hip injury in Week 14 that ended his season. Blount was the team's leading rusher with 703 yards and six touchdowns. Blount and running back Dion Lewis are on season-ending injured reserve.
Jackson, 32, worked out with the Patriots last week. He has not played in the NFL since being released by the Atlanta Falcons in February.
Jackson is a veteran of nine seasons with the St. Louis Rams and two with the Falcons. He has 11,388 career rushing yards.
The 6-foot-2, 240-pound Jackson played for Patriots offensive coordinator Josh McDaniels when McDaniels held the same role with the Rams in 2011.
Jackson had eight straight 1,000-yard rushing seasons with the Rams from 2005-12. He rushed for 707 yards for the Falcons last season.
Jackson took to Twitter on Monday, posting a photo of himself working out, with the caption: "I'm back."
In Sunday's 33-16 victory over the Tennessee Titans, the Patriots divided reps among Brandon Bolden, James White and rookie Joey Iosefa, who was promoted from the practice squad Saturday. The trio combined for 93 rushing yards. The Patriots also signed former Denver Broncos running back Montee Ball to their practice squad last week.