Keselowski saved his best lap for the third and final round of knockout qualifying at the 1.5-mile track, touring the distance in 27.621 seconds (195.503 mph) to edge Edwards (195.454 mph) for the top starting spot by .007 seconds.
But in claiming his second Coors Light Pole Award of the season, his first at Kansas and the 10th of his career, Keselowski didn't cash in on one of the primary perks that typically accrues to the pole winner.
Because his No. 2 Team Penske Ford had accumulated four written warnings for minor infractions discovered during the at-track technical inspection process, Keselowski forfeits the traditional right of first pit selection, and the choice goes to Edwards for Sunday's Hollywood Casino 400 (2 p.m. ET on NBC), the fifth race in the Chase for the NASCAR Sprint Cup.
"It's like getting a nice piece of cheesecake without the toppings," Keselowski said. "It's nice to be fast this week. We weren't anywhere near as fast as we wanted to be at Charlotte (last Sunday), which was frustrating.
"And I'm not sure I could answer why we're faster this week, but sometimes that stuff just comes and goes, and you don't really understand why. But when you have speed, you've got to make the most of it."
Getting the last pick of pit stalls won't help Keselowski's cause, but Edwards didn't seem to mind the unexpected bonus.
"So we'll get that first pit stall (closest to the exit from pit road)," a delighted Edwards said after time trials. "That'll be huge. That's a gift -- and we'll take it."
Both Keselowski and Edwards are among 12 Chase drivers vying for eight spots in the Eliminator 8 Round of NASCAR's 10-race playoff, with the cutoff looming Oct. 25 at Talladega Superspeedway.
Only 14th-place qualifier Joey Logano, who with Dale Earnhardt Jr. (15th) was one of two Chase drivers who didn't make the top 12 on Friday, has already advanced to the Eliminator 8 Round, by virtue of last Sunday's victory at Charlotte.
In addition to Keselowski, Edwards, Logano and Earnhardt, other Chase drivers will line up as follows: Kyle Busch, third; Kevin Harvick, fourth; Denny Hamlin, fifth; Jeff Gordon, sixth; Martin Truex Jr., seventh; Kurt Busch, ninth; and Matt Kenseth, 10th.
Ryan Blaney (eighth), running a limited schedule for Wood Brothers Racing, was the only non-Chase driver to crack the top 10. Blaney posted the fastest lap in the second round of qualifying at 195.164 mph.
Harvick had difficulty getting up to speed during Friday's opening practice session, but the reigning series champion was relieved by his fourth-place qualifying effort.
"That's a win for us," Harvick said. "We thought we were going to have to race our way from 25th, so to be fourth is a big improvement."
NOTES: Timmy Hill failed to make the 43-car field... Casey Mears' No. 13 Chevrolet broke loose and slammed into the Turn 4 wall seven minutes into the first round of qualifying, forcing him to a backup car for Sunday's race.
1. (2) Brad Keselowski, Ford, 195.503 mph.
2. (19) Carl Edwards, Toyota, 195.454 mph.
3. (18) Kyle Busch, Toyota, 194.826 mph.
4. (4) Kevin Harvick, Chevrolet, 194.756 mph.
5. (11) Denny Hamlin, Toyota, 194.735 mph.
6. (24) Jeff Gordon, Chevrolet, 194.623 mph.
7. (78) Martin Truex Jr., Chevrolet, 194.370 mph.
8. (21) Ryan Blaney(i), Ford, 194.363 mph.
9. (41) Kurt Busch, Chevrolet, 194.335 mph.
10. (31) Ryan Newman, Chevrolet, 194.301 mph.
11. (20) Matt Kenseth, Toyota, 194.161 mph.
12. (16) Greg Biffle, Ford, 193.861 mph.
13. (27) Paul Menard, Chevrolet, 194.056 mph.
14. (22) Joey Logano, Ford, 194.035 mph.
15. (88) Dale Earnhardt Jr., Chevrolet, 194.000 mph.
16. (33) Brian Scott(i), Chevrolet, 193.993 mph.
17. (14) Tony Stewart, Chevrolet, 193.833 mph.
18. (17) Ricky Stenhouse Jr., Ford, 193.743 mph.
19. (6) Trevor Bayne, Ford, 193.715 mph.
20. (42) Kyle Larson, Chevrolet, 193.486 mph.
21. (48) Jimmie Johnson, Chevrolet, 193.340 mph.
22. (55) David Ragan, Toyota, 193.313 mph.
23. (43) Aric Almirola, Ford, 193.036 mph.
24. (5) Kasey Kahne, Chevrolet, 193.036 mph.
25. (3) Austin Dillon, Chevrolet, 192.342 mph.
26. (15) Clint Bowyer, Toyota, 191.795 mph.
27. (47) AJ Allmendinger, Chevrolet, 191.714 mph.
28. (1) Jamie McMurray, Chevrolet, 191.707 mph.
29. (10) Danica Patrick, Chevrolet, 191.435 mph.
30. (51) Justin Allgaier, Chevrolet, 190.995 mph.
31. (9) Sam Hornish Jr., Ford, 190.766 mph.
32. (7) Alex Bowman, Chevrolet, 190.590 mph.
33. (38) David Gilliland, Ford, 190.040 mph.
34. (83) Matt DiBenedetto #, Toyota, 189.527 mph.
35. (34) Brett Moffitt #, Ford, 189.487 mph.
36. (26) JJ Yeley(i), Toyota, 189.321 mph.
37. (46) Michael Annett, Chevrolet, Owner Points
38. (13) Casey Mears, Chevrolet, Owner Points
39. (35) Cole Whitt, Ford, Owner Points
40. (23) Jeb Burton #, Toyota, Owner Points
41. (40) Landon Cassill(i), Chevrolet, Owner Points
42. (98) Reed Sorenson, Ford, Owner Points
43. (32) Will Kimmel III, Ford, Owner Points
1 drivers failed to qualify.
44. (62) Timmy Hill(i), Chevrolet, 185.211 mph.