Rondo provided 22 points and 11 assists for the Celtics, who went on an 11-3 run late in the game to secure the victory and end a five-game losing streak.
Jeff Green chipped in 17 points and eight rebounds.
Brandon Bass supplied 14 and eight for Boston.
The Hawks fell for the 10th time in 11 games despite 26 points from Jeff Teague.
DeMarre Carroll finished with 24 and seven rebounds.