Martin ran the ball 28 times during his big game for the Bucs (7-9), who fell short of the post-season for the fifth straight season.
Josh Freeman tossed for 222 yards while going 19-of-35 through the air with a touchdown and an interception in the victory.
Mike Williams led Tampa Bay's receivers with six catches for 65 yards and a score.
The Falcons (13-3), who had already locked up the NFC's No. 1 seed, got a 28-for-44, 238-yard passing performance from Matt Ryan.
He tossed one TD pass while Michael Turner ran for a score in Atlanta's loss.