In addition to Turner -- a top prospect -- the Marlins received minor league catcher Rob Brantly, pitcher Brian Flynn and a compensatory pick.
This season he is batting .287 with eight home runs and 33 RBI.
Sanchez, 28, has spent seven seasons with the Marlins, where he was a key member of their rotation. The right-hander is 5-7 with a 3.94 ERA so far in 2012.
Detroit took the 21-year-old Turner with the ninth overall pick in 2009 and the right-hander made his major league debut last year. He is 1-1 with an 8.03 ERA in four starts this season.