Toronto took a 7-1 lead into the ninth, getting a four-hit, nine-strikeout performance from Jesse Litsch over 6 1/3 innings.
Patterson, J.P. Arencibia and Adam Lind all produced two RBI for the Blue Jays, who returned home off a 5-5 road trip.
Lind and Arencibia both had RBI singles during a three-run first, Arencibia doubled in a run in the third and Lind hit a homer in the seventh. Patterson added a two-run double in the eighth.
Litsch (3-2) gave up four hits and a run and four relievers finished off the game.
Detroit scored three times in the ninth off Shawn Camp before Frank Francisco came on to get the final out and record his second save.
The Tigers had won their previous three games.