With the score tied 2-2, Langenbrunner's 12th this season at 7:52 of the third was the game-winner and Madden's 19th followed about a minute later.
With 90 points, they remained at the top the Eastern Conference.
Also, they lead Pittsburgh by three points for first place in the Atlantic Division.
Jose Theodore gave up four goals on 27 shots for the Avalanche, who lost for just the second time in their last 10 games.
Colorado's Peter Forsberg (groin injury) missed his fourth straight game.