The Braves announced following Friday night's game against the New York Mets that Maddux will be placed on the 15-day disabled list, retroactive to March 26, with an inflamed nerve in his lower back.
The move will be effective Saturday and the righthander, who is in his 17th season, will be eligible to return Wednesday.
Maddux, who turns 36 on April 14, was scheduled to start for the Braves on Opening Day against Philadelphia but was scratched the previous day. He was scheduled to make his first appearance of the season Sunday against the New York Mets.
Last season, Maddux also missed his Opening Day assignment due to a toe injury. He finished the season with a 17-11 record, his fewest wins since going 15-11 in 1996.
One of two pitchers in major league history to win at least 15 games in 14 straight seasons, Maddux has a 257-146 career record with a 2.84 ERA in 505 games, including 501 starts.
To take Maddux's spot on the roster, the Braves will purchase the contract of lefthander Aaron Small from Class AAA Richmond of the International League.