In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France.
In 1823, during his annual address to the U.S. Congress, President James Monroe proclaimed a new U.S. foreign policy initiative that became known as the "Monroe Doctrine."
In 1859, abolitionist John Brown was hanged for his raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, W.Va.
In 1927, the Model A Ford was introduced as the successor to the Model T. The price of a Model A roadster was $395.
In 1942, the Atomic Age was born when scientists demonstrated the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction at a laboratory below the stands at the University of Chicago football stadium.
In 1954, the U.S. Senate voted 65 to 22 to condemn Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, R-Wis., for conduct unbecoming a senator. The condemnation, which was equivalent to a censure, related to McCarthy's controversial investigation of alleged communists in the U.S. government, military and civilian society.
In 1961, Fidel Castro disclosed he was a communist, acknowledging he concealed the fact until he solidified his hold on Cuba.
In 1982, retired dentist Barney Clark, 62, became the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart. (He survived 112 days.)
In 1993, Colombian drug trafficker Pablo Escobar was killed in a shootout with police and soldiers in the Colombian city of Medellin.
In 2001, U.S. forces in Afghanistan captured John Walker Lindh, 20, a U.S. citizen from San Anselmo, Calif., found fighting with the Taliban.
In 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin's party dominated parliamentary elections. Putin, who couldn't seek a third consecutive term, named his successor and became prime minister the following year. (Putin became president again in 2012.)
In 2011, U.S. unemployment declined to 8.6 percent in November, its lowest level in 2 1/2 years.
In 2012, parts of a tunnel collapsed on the Chuo Expressway about 50 miles west of Tokyo, killing nine people, injuring two and trapping at least 30 vehicles. Officials said aging ceiling bolts may have caused the collapse. In 2013, U.N. human rights chief Navi Pillay said a fact-finding team found "massive evidence" that Syrian officials "at the highest level of government, including the head of state," were responsible for "war crimes, crimes against humanity."
A thought for the day: "The way a team plays as a whole determines its success. You may have the greatest bunch of individual stars in the world but if they don't play together the club won't be worth a dime." -- Babe Ruth