WASHINGTON, Oct. 3 (UPI) -- Countries with strict social rules and etiquette such as Britain may foster drinking cultures characterized by unruly or bad behavior, researchers said.
The study released by the International Center for Alcohol Policies in Washington lists 11 cultural features that may predict levels of violence such as homicide and spousal abuse.
Dr. Anne Fox said violence-reinforcing cultures tend to share the following features:
-- Cultural support in the media, norms, icons, etc., for aggression.
-- Militaristic readiness and participation in wars.
-- Glorification of fighters.
-- Violent sports.
-- Corporal and capital punishment.
-- Socialization of male children toward aggression.
-- Belief in malevolent magic.
-- Conspicuous inequality in wealth.
-- A higher than normal proportion of young males in the society.
-- Strong codes of male honor.
-- A culture of male domination.
Fox argues that efforts to counteract a "culture of violence" and "the male propensity for aggression" should be channeled toward altering beliefs about alcohol and social responses to violence and aggression.