NEW YORK, Jan. 15 (UPI) -- A U.S. study suggests that women who outwardly express anger may be at increased heart risk if they also have any of several other risk factors.
Results of the study, conducted exclusively with female subjects, suggest that anger and hostility alone are not predictive for coronary artery disease in women, but women who outwardly express anger may be at increased risk if they also have any of several other risk factors: age, history of diabetes and history of unhealthy levels of fats in the blood.
Cardiologist Dr. C. Noel Bairey Merz, medical director of women's health at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, said the overt expression of anger toward other persons or objects appears to be the most "toxic" aspect of hostility in women.
The researchers analyzed a variety of measures related to anger, including cynicism, hostile temperament, aggression and suppressed anger. Only expressed anger had predictive value, and only when the age, diabetes or dyslipidemia risk factors also were present.
The findings are published in the Journal of Women's Health.