Kyle Chandler also stars as Kalanick's mentor Bill Gurley. Other co-stars include Elisabeth Shue, Kerry Bishé, Jon Bass, Bridget Gao Hollitt and Babak Tafti.
Super Pumped is an anthology series with the first season focusing on Uber. The first season is based on the book Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac.
Billions creators Brian Koppelman and David Levien are serving as showrunners alongside Beth Schacter. Allen Coulter will direct the first episode.
Future seasons of the anthology series will cover other major business stories.
"We've been eager to work with Uma Thurman for a long time, and we're thrilled to have found the perfect role for her in Arianna Huffington -- a role to which Uma will lend her innate complexity, intelligence and magnetism," Amy Israel, Showtime's executive vice president of scripted programming said in a statement.
"Uma, Joseph, Kyle and our incredible ensemble will undoubtedly bring this propulsive, culture defining and wildly entertaining story of Super Pumped to life. We can't wait for the world to see it," Israel continued.
Thurman is best known for starring in films Pulp Fiction, Kill Bill and its sequel, Batman & Robin and more. She will next star in Apple TV+'s Suspicion.