The 10-part series, produced by NBCUniversal International Studios, will follow the exploits of pickpocket The Artful Dodger and Fagin's gang as they try to survive Victorian London in the 1830s.
Eccleston will portray Fagin with Threlfall as Chief of Police Sir Charles Rowan. Jenkins will star as Dodger with Choudhry as Nancy.
Co-stars include Aabay Ali, Ellie-May Sheridan, Mila Lieu, Connor Curren, Sam C Wilson, Tanya Reynolds, Lucy Montgomery, Frances Barber, Javone Prince and Rhys Thomas.
Thomas created the series and is co-writing with Lucy Montogomery along with Charlie Higson who is guest writing an episode. Thomas also serves as director alongside Hildegard Ryan.
Production is underway in Manchester, England, with Dodger set to air next year on CBBC and BBC iPlayer.
"I have always loved Oliver Twist but wasn't so keen on Oliver himself. I preferred the company of Dodger, Fagin and the gang. I thought it would be fun to create a family show with Dodger at its heart and see how he came to be a master criminal in Victorian London," Thomas said in a statement.
"Working with the very best material as a springboard, it's a total delight to expand Dickens' rich world of characters and create a few of my own. To top it all, we have an incredible cast who are starring in the show. I can't wait for families all over the world to see it!" he continued.