There was no studio audience for Thursday's show as a precaution in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Show staffers, Buttigieg's family, friends and husband Chasten were on hand to cheer him on, however.
The house band's musicians also wore "Pete for President" shirts and hats.
The ex-mayor of South Bend, Ind. -- who suspended his campaign earlier this month and announced his endorsement of former Vice President Joe Biden -- performed a 12-minute comedy monologue and interviewed Star Trek icon Patrick Stewart during the program.
Buttigieg urged unity amid the global health crisis and expressed his support for a bill before Congress that would protect those whose healthcare jobs are impacted by the pandemic.
He said he hoped young people found his campaign inspiring.
He also told some jokes.
Pointing to footage of former vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin performing "Baby Got Back" dressed as a bear on The Masked Singer, Buttigieg quipped, "That's going to be me in three months, isn't it?"
He called having to quit his candidacy for president "unfortunate."
"But, what can I say? Some candidates know when to get out of the race and some candidates are Tulsi Gabbard," he said, referring to the Hawaiian congresswoman who is still competing against Biden and Sen. Bernie Sanders for the Democratic nomination, despite little support from voters.
"I really thought we had a shot, but it turns out I was about 40 years too young and 38 years too gay," Buttigieg said.