The photo, taken when the singer was 15 years old, features Cyrus covering herself with a bed sheet while topless.
Cyrus said "I'M NOT SORRY" on Twitter in April alongside a photo of a New York Post cover featuring the Vanity Fair image with the headline "Miley's Shame."
"It was apparently 10 years ago, and I think a lot of things have changed and I think the conversation has changed a lot," Cyrus told Kimmel. "Something that I really thought about was, you know, sure, some people thought that I did something wrong in their eyes, but I think it was really wrong of someone to put on top of someone that this was my shame and that I should be ashamed of myself."
Cyrus also explained that she wasn't being sexualized while taking part in the photo shoot. "It was everyone else's poisonous thoughts and minds that ended up turning this into something it wasn't supposed to be. So actually I shouldn't be ashamed. They should be," she continued.
Cyrus' appearance on Jimmy Kimmel Live! also included the 25-year-old discussing how she has chosen to abstain from smoking marijuana and how fiance Liam Hemsworth likes to scare her inside their home.
"It's just not for me at this time in my life," she said about smoking. "But I'm sure there will be a day that I will happily indulge."