Buscemi will star alongside Daniel Radcliffe in the seven-episode comedy series after Wilson dropped out of the project in August.
The series takes place in a heaven-set workplace where Buscemi, who last appeared on television in HBO's Boardwalk Empire, will star as God.
Radcliffe stars opposite Buscemi as Craig, a low-level angel responsible for handling all of humanity's prayers, working for a God that has checked out of his job to focus on his favorite hobbies.
Miracle Workers is executive produced by Saturday Night Live's Lorne Michaels and created by Man Seeking Woman's Simon Rich, who also will serve as showrunner.
The series is based on Rich's book What in God's Name and was picked up by TBS as part of its upfront slate.
Production was stalled after Wilson decided to leave the project and Miracle Workers is currently scheduled to premier in 2018.