The rock band performed Sunday at the Dome at America's Center in St. Louis after postponing shows in 2020 due to the pandemic.
The Rolling Stones paid tribute to Watts, who died in August. The show opened with an empty stage and a drumbeat as photos of Watts flashed on a video board.
"I just want to say that it's quite emotional seeing those images of Charlie up on the screen," Jagger said. "This is our first tour that we've ever done without him."
"We all miss Charlie so much, on the stage and off the stage, and we'd love to dedicate this tour to Charlie. Here's to you, Charlie!" he added.
Watts died at age 80 on Aug. 24.
"Charlie was a cherished husband, father and grandfather and also as a member of the Rolling Stones one of the greatest drummer of his generation," the Rolling Stones tweeted at the time.
The Rolling Stones had announced earlier in August that Watts would not join them on the No Filter tour following a medical procedure.
The Rolling Stones will next perform Thursday in Charlotte, N.C.