Reba McEntire hosted the gala, which aired live on CBS.
Aldean won the evening's top honor of Entertainer of the Year, while Stapleton was named Male Vocalist of the Year and took home the Album of the Year prize for From a Room: Volume 1.
Stapleton wasn't able to attend the event, however, because his wife Morgane had given birth to their sons and the family was home in Nashville.
"Those little rascals came a little bit early," McEntire told the crowd. "Hot off the press! ... Twin boys."
Miranda Lambert won the award for Female Vocalist of the Year and her record "Tin Man" was voted Song of the Year.
Sam Hunt's "Body Like a Back Road" won for Single Record of the Year and the prize for Vocal Event of the Year went to Keith Urban and Carrie Underwood for "The Fighter." Old Dominion won the trophy for Vocal Group of the Year.