Barrymore, 45, reunited with Goldberg, 64, during Friday's episode of Barrymore's The Art of the Interview web series.
Barrymore and Goldberg played Holly Pulchik and Jane DeLuca in Boys on the Side, released in 1995.
"It was wild, wasn't it. We had something just a little bit different, I think," Goldberg said of their bond. "Just behaving a little wildly and having a blast, and knowing we had each other's backs."
Barrymore told Goldberg how she encouraged her to be "wild" and inspired her with "kindness" while filming the movie.
"The thing that also is so important, and you are someone who really instilled this in me, is you can be as wild, rebellious, have a past, get married over a weekend, whatever it is, but the kindness, the goodness, that is the consistent through-line," Barrymore said.
"Living a life where you get to be yourself and you get to do your thing and figure your stuff out, but you're so good to people. That's who I follow. That's who I've learned from. And you are the living example of that," she added.
Earlier in the interview, Barrymore said she was "embarrassed" to face Goldberg on set after marrying film producer Jeremy Thomas in 1994.
"Talk about shame. I was like, 'Yeah, no. I wasn't really talking about this guy last week, but I'm married to him now,'" she recalled. "I was embarrassed, because I care what you think."