The suit names Yorkville Endoscopy Center in Manhattan, former medical director Dr. Lawrence Cohen, anesthesiologist Robert Koiuta and Dr. Gwen Korovin, Rivers' ear, nose and throat doctor.
Melissa Rivers said the decision to file a lawsuit, which seeks unspecified damages, was "one of the most difficult decisions I've ever had to make."
"What ultimately guided me was my unwavering belief that no family should ever have to go through what my mother, [my son] Cooper and I have been through," she said in a statement. "The level of medical mismanagement, incompetency, disrespect, and outrageous behavior is shocking and frankly, almost incomprehensible.
"Not only did my mother deserve better, every patient deserves better. It is my goal to make sure that this kind of horrific medical treatment never happens to anyone again."
One of the doctors involved in the procedure was accused of taking a selfie with Rivers lying on the operating table during the procedure.
A report by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services found the physicians in charge of the procedure "failed to identify deteriorating vital signs and provide timely intervention during the procedure."