SKOPJE, Macedonia, Feb. 25 (UPI) -- In 1994 Tim Field was bullied out of his job as a customer services manager, a move that resulted in a stress breakdown. Using this experience, he set up the U.K. National Workplace Bullying Advice Line in 1996 and his Web site Bully Online in 1997.
Since then he said he has worked on more than 5,000 cases worldwide. He lectures widely as well as writing and publishing books on bullying and psychiatric injury. He is the Webmaster of Bully Online (successunlimited.co.uk).
Q: What is workplace bullying?
A: Workplace bullying is persistent, unwelcome, intrusive behavior of one or more individuals whose actions prevent others from fulfilling their duties.
Q: How is it different than adopting disciplinarian measures, maintaining strict supervision or oversight?
A: The purpose of bullying is to hide the inadequacy of the bully and has nothing to do with "management" or the achievement of tasks. Bullies project their inadequacies onto others to distract and divert attention away from their inadequacies. In most cases of workplace bullying reported to the U.K. National Workplace Bullying Advice Line, the bully is a serial bully who has a history of conflict with staff. The bullying that one sees is often also the tip of an iceberg of wrongdoing which may include misappropriation of budgets, harassment, discrimination, as well as breaches of rules, regulations, professional codes of conduct and health and safety practices.
Q: Should it be distinguished from harassment (including sexual harassment), or stalking?
A: Bullying is, I believe, the underlying behavior and thus the common denominator of harassment, discrimination, stalking and abuse. What varies is the focus for expression of the behavior. For instance, a harasser or discriminator focuses on race or gender or disability. Bullies focus on competence and popularity that at present are not covered by employment legislation.
Bullies seethe with resentment and anger and the conduits for release of this inner anger are jealousy and envy which explains why bullies pick on employees who are good at their job and popular with people. Being emotionally immature, bullies crave attention and become resentful when others get more attention for their competence and achievements than themselves.
Q: What is the profile of the typical bully?
A: Over 90 percent of the cases reported to the U.K. National Workplace Bullying Advice Line involve a serial bully who can be recognized by behavior profiles, which include compulsive lying, a Jekyll-and-Hyde nature, an unusually high verbal facility, charm and a considerable capacity to deceive, an arrested level of emotional development and a compulsive need to control. The serial bully rarely commits a physical assault or an arrestable offense, preferring instead to remain within the realms of psychological violence and non-arrestable offences.
Q: What are bullying's typical outcomes?
A: In the majority of cases, the target of bullying is eliminated through forced resignation, unfair dismissal, or early or ill-health retirement whilst the bully is promoted. After a short interval of between two and 14 days, the bully selects another target and the cycle restarts. Sometimes another target is selected before the current target is eliminated.
Q: Can you provide us with some statistics? How often does bullying occur? How many people are affected?
A: Surveys of bullying in the United Kingdom indicate that between 12-50 percent of the workforce experience bullying. Statistics from the U.K. National Workplace Bullying Advice Line reveal that around 20 percent of cases are from the education sector, 12 percent are from healthcare, 10 percent are from social services and around 6 percent from the voluntary, charity, not-for-profit sector.
After that, calls come from all sectors both public and private, with finance, media, police, postal workers and other government employees featuring prominently. Enquiries from outside the United Kingdom -- notably the United States, Canada, Australia and Ireland -- show similar patterns with the caring professions topping the list of bullied workers.
Q: Could you estimate the economic effects of workplace bullying -- costs to employers (firms), employees, law enforcement agencies, the courts, the government, etc.?
A: Bullying is one of the major causes of stress, and the cost of stress to U.K. (businesses) is thought to be between 5 nillion-12 billion pounds ($7 billion-$17 billion). When all the direct, indirect and consequential costs of bullying are taken into account, the cost to (businesses, taxpayers and shareholders) could be in excess of 30 billion pounds ($44 billion), equivalent to around 1,000 pounds ($1,450) hidden tax per working adult per year. Employers do not account for the cost of bullying and its consequences, therefore the figures never appear on balance sheets.
Employees have to work twice as hard to overcome the serial bully's inefficiency and dysfunction, which can spread through an organization like a cancer.
Because of its subtle nature, bullying can be difficult to recognize, but the consequences are easy to spot: excessive workloads, lack of support, a climate of fear, and high levels of insecurity.
The effects on health include, amongst other things, chronic fatigue, damage to the immune system, reactive depression and suicide.
The indirect costs of bullying include higher-than-average staff turnover and sickness absence. Each of these incur consequential costs of staff cover, administration, loss of production and reduced productivity which are rarely recognized and even more rarely attributed to their cause. Absenteeism alone costs UK plc more than ($14 billion) a year and stress is now officially the No. 1 cause of sickness absence having taken over from the common cold. However, surveys suggest that at least 20 percent of employers still do not regard stress as a health and safety issue, instead preferring to see it as skiving and malingering.
The Bristol Stress and Health at Work Study published by the HSE in June 2000 revealed that one in five U.K. workers -- around 5.5 million -- reported feeling extremely stressed at work. The main stress factors were having too much work and not being supported by managers. In November 2001 a study by Proudfoot Consulting revealed the cost of bad management, low employee morale and poorly-trained staff to British business at 117 lost working days a year. At 65 percent, bad management -- often a euphemism for bullying -- accounted for the biggest slice of unproductive days with low morale accounting for 17 percent. The study also suggested that in the U.K. 52 percent of all working time is spent unproductively compared to the European average of 43 percent.
The results of a 3-year survey of British workers by the Gallup Organization published in October 2001 revealed that many employers are not getting the best from their employees. The most common response to questions such as "how engaged are your employees?" and "how effective is your leadership and management style?" and "how well are you capitalizing on the talents, skills and knowledge of your people?" was an overwhelming "not very much". The survey also found that the longer an employee stayed, the less engaged they became. The cost to UK plc of lost workdays due to lack of engagement was estimated to be between ($56 billion-$70 billion) a year.
Q: What can be done to reduce workplace bullying? Are firms, the government, law enforcement agencies, the courts aware of the problem and its magnitude? Are educational campaign effective? Did anti-bullying laws prove effective?
A: Most bullying is hierarchical and can be traced to the top or near the top. As bullying is often the visible tip of an iceberg of wrongdoing, denial is the most common strategy employed by toxic managements. Only Sweden has a law that specifically addresses bullying. Where no law exists, bullies feel free to bully. Whilst the law is not a solution, the presence of a law is an indication that society has made a judgment that the behavior is no longer acceptable.
Awareness of bullying, and especially its seriousness, is still low throughout society. Bullying is not just "something children do in the playground", it's a lifetime behavior on the same level as domestic violence, sexual harassment and rape.
Bullying is a form of psychological and emotional rape because of its intrusive and violational nature.