UNITED NATIONS -- The Security Council adopted a resolution Wednesday that would bring a permanent cease-fire to the Persian Gulf War once Iraq unconditionally accepts all its 'tough but ... fair' provisions.
The U.S.-drafted resolution, approved by a vote of 12-1 with two abstentions, would eliminate all Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, guarantee the border between Iraq and Kuwait, and, except for humanitarian aid, maintain strict economic and arms sanctions.
It also would require Iraq to pay war reparations and deploy a U.N. peacekeeping force to relieve the allied troops in the region, including the force now occupying about 15 percent of Iraq.
Cuba voted against the measure while Yemen and Ecuador abstained.
U.S. Ambassador Thomas Pickering said the resolution 'endeavors to get at the core of problems which led us into the gulf crisis, and it shows what must be done to lead is out. This resolution is tough, but it is fair.'
Pickering said economic sanctions against Iraq will be modified as steps specified in the resolution are gradually carried out by Baghdad, and he emphasized that the overall objective of the resolution was for Iraq to regain its place in the international community.
Iraq's U.N. ambassador, Abdul Amir al-Anbari, protested the demands, but did not reject the resolution. Addressing the council before the vote, he said a border guarantee condition would be an 'infringement' on Iraqi sovereignty.
As for the destruction of its mightiest weapons, Al-Anbari said, 'Applying it to Iraq alone is a duplicity and double standard,' referring to the large arsenals of other nations in the Middle East.
He called the continued economic sanctions 'economic aggression' on the people of Iraq and a violation of their human rights.
Some Third World countries decried the conditions as too tough on Iraqis and said the resolution would set an unacceptable precedent for solving regional conflicts. Yemen's U.N. ambassador, Adballa Saleh al- Ashtal, said the resolution exceeded the U.N.'s jurisdiction as set out in its charter.
Commenting on the passage of the resolution, President Bush, vacationing in Jupiter, Fla., said the Security Council has again 'demonstrated its determination to contribute significantly to the prospects for lasting peace and security in the gulf region.'
'It is now up to Iraq's government to demonstrate that it is prepared to respect the will of the world community and communicate its formal acceptance of this resolution to the Security Council and the Secretary General,' Bush said.
The cease-fire resolution set up a complex mechanism for the secretary-general and U.N. agencies to almost completely disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction.
Except for food imports on humanitarian grounds, the council decided to keep the strict economic and arms sanctions against Iraq. It will decide in 120 days whether to lift the sanctions provided Iraq has complied with the provisions.
The resolution was approved over objections by non-aligned countries in the council, mostly Cuba, Yemen and India, which tried to amend it. It was backed by the five permanent members of the council: United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, China and France.
The non-aligned nations wanted the council to declare the permanent cease-fire once the resolution was adopted and they demanded that sanctions be lifted altogether. These countries also object to demands for the destruction of Iraq's heavy weaponry.
The resolution asked the council to guarantee the inviolability of the border between Iraq and Kuwait, which both agreed to on Oct. 4, 1963.
The observer unit will monitor a demilitarized zone extending 6 miles into Iraq and about 3 miles into Kuwait to deter violations of the boundary and to observe any hostile or potentially hostile action mounted from either side.
The resolution also would hold Iraq liable under international law for 'any direct loss, damage, including environmental damage and the depletion of natural resources, or injury to foreign governments, nationals and corporations, as a result of Iraq's unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait.'
The toughest demand is the elimination of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, including all chemical and biological weapons and all ballistic missiles with a range greater than 90 miles. Diplomats said the aim was to rid Iraq of Soviet-made Scud missiles, which it used during the war against Israel and Saudi Arabia.
The resolution calls for their destruction within 45 days of the adoption of the resolution. The U.N. secretary-general is asked to set up a special commission to make immediate on-site inspection of the weapons, to oversee the locations, to be provided by Iraq, and the destruction of the weapons, launchers and major parts.
Iraq also is required not to acquire or develop 'nuclear weapons or nuclear-weapons-usable materials' under terms of the destruction of the weapons.
A U.N. fund will be created within 30 days to compensate claims and Iraq is required to contribute a percentage of its oil exports revenues to the fund.