Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou, a controversial leader elected to a second four-year term in office, is a Harvard-educated economist who taught in the United States and married an American woman.
But the 66-year-old leader has been a thorn in the side of U.S. policymakers since he formed the first leftist government in modern Greek history in 1981.
Papandreou has called for removal of U.S. military bases and urged withdrawal from NATO, improved relations with the Soviet Union, Cuba and the Palestine Liberation Organization and recommended a nuclear-free zone in the Balkans.
He has also embarked on a program of socialization, placing key domestic industries under the control of committees of workers and government officials and moving to nationalize operations of some foreign industries.
Papandreou has backed down from some of his more extreme stands, and even negotiated an agreement allowing the U.S. bases to operate until 1988.
But his agenda climaxed a personal transformation from liberal but pro-Western views to Marxist economic philosophies and a geopolitical position of non-alignment.
The eldest son of a three-time Greek prime minister, Papandreou entered politics late in life after a lengthy academic career in the United States.
After attending college in Athens, he was arrested by the dictatorship of Gen. Ioannis Metaxas in 1937 on charges of advocating Trotskyite communism. Papandreou was later freed at his father's request and went to the United States, where he graduated with honors with an economics degree from Harvard.
He taught at the University of Minnesota and was dean of the economics school at the University of California at Berkeley. He became an American citizen and married Margaret Chant, with whom he had three sons and a daughter.
Papandreou returned to Greece in 1959, quickly became a member of the Center Union Party headed by his father, George, and renounced his U.S. citizenship. When the party won the 1963 election, Papandreou was given ministerial posts.
Accusations about his connection to a clandestine army officers' organization led to his father's resignation in 1965. When a group of army colonels imposed a military dictatorship in 1967, Papandreou was arrested and imprisoned briefly, then sent into exile in the United States.
The long exile led Papandreou to largely abandon his pro-Western political and economic beliefs and return to the radicalism of his youth. When democracy was restored in Greece in 1974, Papandreou came home and founded the Panhellenic Socialist Movement, a left-wing democratic socialist party.
The party, which advocated NATO withdrawal, removal of the U.S. bases and a hard line against Turkey, which invaded Cyprus in 1974, steadily grew before scoring an impressive victory in 1981 and sweeping Papandreou into office.