The Democratic National Convention, approving its 1984 platform, Tuesday...


SAN FRANCISCO -- The Democratic National Convention, approving its 1984 platform, Tuesday crushed Jesse Jackson's three major goals by voting down planks to ban runoff primaries, cut defense spending and pledge 'no first use' of nuclear weapons.

But Jackson, making clear that his defeats will not diminish his support of the party, said in a speech prepared for delivery after approval of the platform that he is satisfied that the issues were raised.


'We could afford to lose the vote,' Jackson said. 'Issues are negotiable. We could not afford to avoid raising the right questions. Our self respect and our moral integrity were at stake. Our heads are perhaps bloody, but unbowed. Our back is straight and our vision is clear.'

Runoff primaries -- holding second primaries if one candidate does not win a majority -- is an emotional issue with Jackson who feels such 'dual primaries' are discriminatory.


The debate over the issue turned ugly for a while as Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young, a black, was loudly booed for opposing the Jackson plank.

The platform itself was approved by voice vote with representatives of each of the three campaigns moving its approval. But the more important votes were the defeats of Jackson's planks.

The votes of 2,500.8 to 1,253.2 against the runoff primary plank, 2,591.6 to 1,127.6 against defense cuts and 2,216 to 1,405 against the nuclear weapons plank established Walter Mondale's clear dominance of the 39th Democratic convention.

However, Mondale forces worked feverishly around the clmck to compromise with Jackson and Hart, successfully with Hart and only partially successfully with Jackson.

At the last minute, as debate and voting continued on other planks, Mondale agreed to accept a compromise on Jackson's plank to support racial quotas. A Mondale aide said the compromise plank would not mention quotas, but would support 'goals, timetables and verifiable measurements.'

That plank was accepted quickly by voice vote.

Mondale earlier agreed to accept Gary Hart's one minority plank outlining the conditions under which the United States should use military force.

Mondale supported the platform written by the 184-member platform committee that pledged continued defense increases, although at a lower rate than President Reagan. Mondale also supported the platform's pledge to 'move toward' a no-first-strike policy, in line with Mondale's position that it would be 'naive' to give away a bargaining chip to the Soviet Union.


Gary Hart supported Mondale in voting against further defense cuts, but told his delegates to 'vote their conscience' on the pledge that the United States not be the first to use nuclear weapons.

'I urge you to vote for life,' said Rep. Theodore Weiss, D-N.Y., in supporting the 'no first use' plank.

But Sen. Carl Levin, D-Mich., said the plank does not contribute to making the world safer because it assures the Soviets they can invade Western Europe with conventional forces and not face nuclear retaliation.

At the last minute, a compromise was reached with Hart on his plank spelling out general principles for when a president should use military force.

The Hart proposal generally follows his campaign theme of working with allies rather than taking unilateral action, and says the United States should 'take all reasonable domestic action' to reduce U.S. dependence on Persian Gulf oil.

The platform takes a more conservative economic stance than in past Democratic platforms, proposing no new social or jobs programs, but it makes strong statements on individual and human rights, including support for the Equal Rights Amendment and for homosexual rights.

It also has these major provisions:

-A 15 percent minimum corporate tax, and denial of benefits from the third year of President Reagan's income tax cut to those making $60,000 a year or more.


-Restoration of Reagan's cuts in education support.

-Opposition to the Simpson-Mazzoli immigration bill, which includes penalties for employers who hire illegal aliens.

-Steps leading to 'a comprehensive, mutual and verifiable nuclear weapons freeze.'

-Support for Israel and moving the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem.

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