The question of "who won the four-power conference" may never be definitely settled but an analysis of demands, counter-demands and final agreement shows that Adolf Hitler gained his main points.
This was for surrender of the heavily German populated Sudetenland areas by Saturday, and withdrawal of Czech forces to make way for German entry. On that he gained at least a symbolic victory.
On the other hand, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and Premier Edouard Daladier won concessions, particularly in regard to gradual occupation of the Sudetenland by German troops and the establishment of an international commission and an international force to supervise the transfer.
A point-by-point comparison of the British-French plan, the Hitler demands and the final agreement follows:
British-French Plan (Sept. 19): Transfer of the Sudetenland to Germany, either directly or by plebiscite, or a combination of both.
Hitler's Ultimatum (at Godesberg, Sept. 23): Withdrawal of Czech armed-forces and police from Sudetenland and surrender to Germany on Oct. 1.
Final Agreement (Sept. 29 at Munich): Evacuation by Czechs of predominantly German areas begins Oct. 1, progresses by stages to Oct. 10 under supervision of international commission. German troops will occupy progressively.
British-French: Proposed negotiations on details of transfer.
Hitler: Evacuated territory to be handed over in present condition, but Czech representatives could be attached to German forces to deal with details. No economic, traffic or other materials to be removed; no foodstuffs, cattle, etc., to be moved.
Final: Czechoslovak government shall be responsible for evacuation without damage to installations in Sudetenland.
British-French: Area for transfer to include districts with more than 50 per cent German population.
Hitler: Area marked on four-power map to be occupied progressively by German troops with provision for withdrawal of troops later to permit plebiscite before Nov. 25.
Final: Area marked on four-power map to be occupied progressively by German forces by Oct. 7 and remaining areas predominantly German as determined by an international commission to be occupied by Oct. 10.
British-French: International commission to arrange transfer of population from areas involved within specified time.
Hitler: No reference, except that German-Czech commission should work out details.
Final: A German-Czech commission shall work out details of population transfer.
British-French: An international guarantee of the future frontiers of Czechoslovakia as established by an international commission.
Hitler: No reference to guarantees but, in a later letter to Chamberlain, the Fuehrer said Germany would be willing to recognize the frontiers as permanent after settlement of claims of Hungary and Poland.
Final: Final determination of frontiers by an international commission. An international guarantee of these frontiers by Britain and France and, after settlement of the Polish-Hungarian demands, by Germany and Italy. The Polish-Hungarian demands shall be subject of another four-power conference if not settled in three months.
Hitler: Immediate discharge of all Sudeten Germans in military and other forces of Czechoslovakia and immediate liberation of all German political prisoners in Czechoslovakia.
Final: Release of Sudetens from Czech army within four weeks. German political prisoners to be released within four weeks.