PETROGRAD, via LONDON, March 16, 1917 (UP) -- Democracy controls Russia.
Czar Nicholas has abdicated.
The Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch will act as regent until the czarevitch, 13 is of age.
Pro-German notables of the old regime have been captured and a new ministry of the people has been appointed.
The Czar is at Pskoff and the czarina is at the imperial palace at Tsarke Selo, according to the latest information today.
The czarina was said to be in perfect safety, contradicting earlier reports that she has been imprisoned by the revolutionists.
The greatest hunt for traitors and spies in history is on. The populace and the army have joined in this systematic hunt for pro-German intriguers.
It was their brazen activities that were the immediate cause of the downfall of the czar and his absolutist government.
Not even the highest nobles were exempt from this spy hunt.
Gen. Sukhomlinoff, former minister of war, was one of those arrested.
He went to join a notable company of those whose words were law in other days.
The reported assassination of former Premier Sturmer and Minister of the Interior Protopopoff by the revolutionists, has not yet been officially confirmed.
It is stated the Grand Duke Nicholas, whom the revolutionists trust, will probably be appointed provisional dictator of the army.
Minister of Justice Kerensky of the new provisional government today decided upon a general amnesty to all political offenders
Grand Duke Nicholas, commanding the army of the Caucasus, telegraphed President Rodzianko of the duma today that in agreement with Gen. Alexeiff, Russian chief of staff of the army, he advised the czar to abdicate.
Such action, he held, was the only possible step to save Russia and bring the war to a successful conclusion.
Twenty were killed in Monday's fighting in Petrograd and 120 were wounded, according to best information today.
According to Russian newspaper reports that railroad lines to Finland were blown up at several points.
The Russian troops in Finland are confidently expected to support the new government. When the old government ordered them to report to Petrograd last week to suppress riots then in their incipiency, these troops flatly refused to respond.
The populace and the fully sympathetic troops of the city brooked no opposition to their control.
Baron Stokelberg fired on a group of soldiers from his window. His house was promptly stormed. The Baron was dragged out, carried to the side of the quay and summarily executed.
Count Fredericks, the aged minister of the imperial household and aide-de-camp to the czar, was discovered in hiding. His life was spared, but he was sent to prison to join other notables of the old regime. His house was wrecked.
Countess Klein Michael, long suspected as a German spy, was discovered in hiding at the Chinese legation. Soldiers promptly took her into custody.
No more dramatic incident occurred in the last few days of rioting then that of the former minister of war, Gen. Sukhomlinoff.
A group of soldiers and of hastily armed people seized him. The soldiers demanded his instant execution, recalling vivid stories of the former minister's duplicity and treasonable dealings with Germany.
Deputy Kerensky of Sartoff, one of the duma leaders in the revolt, and minister of justice in the provisional government, intervened.
He appealed to the mob to spare the minister's life, stating justice would be meted out to him.
"Sukhomlinoff desires nothing better than immediate execution," Kerensky shouted.
The crowed wavered and Kerensky won the day.
But then the soldiery demanded their former chief's degradation. "Sukhomlinoff himself tore his epaulets from his shoulders and handed them to the soldiers. He bowed, brokenly and submitted himself to their mercies.
Tottering in his disgrace and overwhelmed with despair he was hardly able to walk to Tauris palace, where other notables were held.
Dispatches today indicated that Petrograd is now quiet. The new regime is in full swing and perfect order is being rapidly restored. Stores, banks and business houses, with full confidence in the new government, have reopened their doors.
It is confirmed that the provisional government, headed by army and duma leaders, will seek a more diligent prosecution of the war under a more compact and more efficient administration of the military, internal and foreign affairs of the government.
"The re-establishment of a power capable of achieving a victory, as demonstrated by recent event, will increase the popular enthusiasm and multiply the national forces of the people's anger and their determination," said Prof. Paul N. Milukoff, new minister of foreign affairs today.
"Our revolution was the shortest and least bloody of any in history."
Fifteen assemblies of the Russian nobility met and adopted resolutions announcing their participation in the popular revolution.
The resolutions vigorously assailed those officials of the old government responsible for the crisis which resulted in the overthrow of the czar.
The revolution resulted because the duma, backed by public opinion, decided the rulers -- the cabinet or ministry -- of Russia were not prosecuting the war in a way which would mean victory for Russia and her allies. It was a revolt against pro-Germanism in the government of Russia.
It was a move to oust pro-Germans and give the government over to pro-Russians and pro-allies.
One big factor in the trouble was the wife of the czar, Empress Alexandra, a German princess, who had great influence over the czar.
Many ministers and high officials in the empire leaned toward Wilhelmstrasse.
Although the revolution and its success was sudden, it has been brewing for more than a year. It started when a report was circulated that representatives of Germany and certain Russian ministers were negotiating for a separate peace.
The duma caused the resignation of Prime Minister Goremykin in February 1916. Goremykin was pro-German.
The czar named Boris Sturmer prime minister, succeeding Goremykin. This choice displeased the duma, as Sturmer was thought also to be pro-German and willing to make a separate peace with the central powers.
Sturmer was so severely criticized in the duma that he was forced to resign and Alexander Trepoff was then made prime minister. He soon fell in disfavor and Golitzine was named. Golitzine has held the post since.
The present revolution came to a head when Czar Nicholas ordered the duma dissolved. He did this because the duma had bitterly criticized the government while unrest had been spreading.
Already the revolution had gained headway in the army and among the people of many cities.
The duma refused to dissolve and placed itself squarely on the side of the revolutionists. There had been street fighting and rioting for food. General disorder throughout the empire showed the unrest.
On Monday the members of the duma, except the extreme Right party, extreme advocate of absolutism, met in spite of the czar's order and voted unanimously to authorize the executive council of that body to declare the present government overthrown and organize a provisional government.
President Rodzianko of the duma wired the czar:
"The hour has struck when the will of the people must prevail."
The czar refused to listen. Then the blow was struck.
The duma got in touch with army commanders in Petrograd, Moscow and other cities. The army and the duma proved to be one, and the three-day revolution started.
Street fighting then followed between the troops that favored the overthrow of the government and those who stood by the rulers.
The active revolution spread from the capital throughout the empire and regiment after regiment rushed to the support of the new government, seizing arsenals and other strategic points.
The police in some cities resisted, but were soon overthrown. In most cities the police rallied to the new cause.
In Petrograd, former Premier Sturmer, Premier Golitzine and the head of the secret police were thrown in jail. Secret police and governmental buildings were burned. A river bridge was burned.
Jails throughout the empire, which were a symbol of absolutism to the Russian people, just as the Bastille was to the French in 1789, were stormed and thrown open.
Hundreds of political prisoners, whose only offenses were voicing opposition to the government, were freed. In their places were thrown the adherents of the old regime.
In the last week many workingmen refused to work because of the shortage of bread, due to poor supply management.
For a few days mounted patrols kept the crowds moving. But when ordered to fire into the crowd they refused, and in many cases shot their own commanders.
On Tuesday the official newspapers in Petrograd did not appear. In their places the organs of the revolutionists came out giving accounts of the progress of the revolution.
The revolution broke out simultaneously in Petrograd and Moscow. The garrison obeyed the instructions of the revolutionists and took possession of the cities. The garrison at Kharkov is supporting the provisional government.
Kronstadt, Russia's greatest naval station, 20 miles from Petrograd, fell in line with the revolutionists.
All pro-German reactionaries are being rounded up by the new government which is determined to push the war to a quick and victorious conclusion.
The speed with which the revolution was carried out is unparalleled in history. It took the Russians just three days to overthrow the world's last example of absolutism.