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Britain declares war on Germany; martial law imposed

By ED L. KEEN, United Press Staff Correspondent

LONDON, Aug. 5, 1914 (UP) -- All England today demands that Lord Kitchener, the hero of Khartum, direct her destinies in the conflict with Germany. There is tremendous agitation for the appointment of Kitchener as war minister.

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It was officially announced today that though he has not been appointed to the post, he has been in the war office and has assisted without any definite designation as title. Lord Haldane has also been assisting in the war office.

It was not until 12:40 a.m. today that the cabinet adjourned its war council following the announcement of the declaration against Germany.

In the meantime the wildest demonstrations were in progress in the streets. Great crowds carrying intertwined British union jacks and French tricolors paraded about Buckingham palace, the admiralty and war offices singing "God Save the King," "Rule Brittania" and the "Marseillaise."

England's declaration of war was made shortly after midnight this morning.

The Kaiser had previously declared war against England as a reply to the British ultimatum demanding that he give assurances that he would respect the neutrality of Belgium.

Britain gave him till midnight last night to reply.

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He didn't wait till midnight, but answered by declaring war. The Kaiser's declaration was received at the English war office at 7 o'clock last night.

The British government then waited until the expiration of the ultimatum, in order to keep its record clear, and immediately after midnight issued its declaration against Germany.

The British officially hold that England declared war, as the declaration by the Kaiser was not officially announced.

Volunteers are flocking to army headquarters. The war spirit has spread everywhere. It is announced that the war office will accept all offers troops from the colonies, but that no arrangements for transporting them will be made until it is certain where they will be needed.

Facing a suspension of commerce and possible siege, the people of London are today advised by the newspapers to practice strict economy in the consumption of foodstuffs and fuel.

The papers suggest the saving of vegetable, salts, use of potato skins, and making of brown flour from wheat chaff.

A small quantity of meal stewed with vegetables is suggested as the standard dish.

The importation of sugar, bacon, poultry and dairy products is expected to be stopped, and cheese and nuts are to take the place of butter.

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The German ambassador, Lichnowsky, will return home on a British cruiser. This was officially announced today. He will be transported to his home country tomorrow, after arrangements that the cruiser shall not be attacked by the Germans en route.

Once again the United States is called upon to represent the warring nations in the capitals of their antagonists. When Lichnowsky was handed his passports by England, he turned over to United States Ambassador Page the archives of his embassy.

Golville Barclay, British charge at Washington, today formally notified the State department that a state of war exists between England and Germany. He requested the United States to act diplomatically for England in Germany and the United States readily agreed.

The declaration of war was followed immediately last night by proclamations of martial law throughout Great Britain and Ireland.

The government took over the railroads and closed the British ports. They also seized all shipyards in which warships were being built for foreign countries. These acts placed the military authorities in supreme control throughout the realm.

The admiralty has issued orders to all warship commanders to search shipping for contraband of war. The Hague regulations with respect to what is contraband will be strictly observed.

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The British cruiser Niobe, now in Halifax, Nova Scotia, harbor, without a crew is to be manned and added to the swift cruiser patrol the admiralty is reported to be rushing across the Atlantic to protect the coast of Canada.

The British naval base of Bermuda, closed since the station was taken over by the Canadian government, was opened today and will be utilized by British warships in Canadian and American waters.

Four alleged German spies, arrested by Scotland Yard detectives, were arraigned in Bow-st court today and ordered held without bail.

The New Haven-Dieppe route across the English Channel was ordered closed and all vessels ordered to stay in port.

The news of the war declaration last night roused the London populace to a furry. An enormous mob stormed the Germany embassy, and an avalanche of stones were hurled at its windows.

Police reserves were called and officers had to ride repeatedly through the mob before it dispersed.

Later the attack was renewed and once again mounted officers had to ride through the mob. Troops were called and placed on guard at the embassy.

Important naval appointments were gasetted last night, including appointment of Admiral Sir J. R. Jellicoe as commander in chief of the British home fleets, with Rear Admiral Charles E. madden as chief of staff.

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The declaration of war between England and Germany now places England, Russia, France, Belgium, Holland, Serbia and Montenegro against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

There is, however, the strong possibility that Japan may be drawn in as England's ally in the Far East, and that Greece as ally of Serbia, and Bulgarian Balkan nations may be involved in the war of nations.

Switzerland is today in the attitude of watchful waiting, taking no part in the conflict now and perhaps never to be involved unless its borders should be invaded by a hostile army and their neutrality be invaded.

The Kaiser in opening the war session of the Reichstag yesterday made a speech in which he declared the honor of Germany to be at stake. He announced that Germany is prepared to fight all the world, if necessary, where her honor is concerned.

England took him at his word and joined the world war against him.

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