Umm al-Fahm (Arabic: أمّ الفحم, Umm al-Faḥm; Hebrew: אֻם אל-פַחְם) is a city in the Haifa District of Israel with a population of 43,300, nearly all of whom are Arab citizens of Israel. The city is situated on the Umm al-Fahm mountain ridge, the highest point of which is Mt. Iskander (522 meters above sea level), overlooking Wadi Ara. Umm al-Fahm is the social, cultural and economic center for residents of the Wadi Ara and Triangle regions.
According to the Muslim historian al-Maqrizi, Umm al-Fahm was established in 1265. Its name means "Mother of Charcoal" in Arabic, ) the village was surrounded by natural forests which were used to produce charcoal. Several archaeological sites around the city date to the the Iron Age, as well as Muslim, Roman and Hellenistic periods. In 1948, there were 4,500 inhabitants, mostly farmers, in the Umm al-Fahm area. After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Lausanne Conference of 1949 awarded the entire Little Triangle to Israel, which wanted it for security purposes. On 20 May 1949, the city's leader signed an oath of alliegiance to the State of Israel. Following its absorption into Israel, the town's population grew rapidly. By 1960, Umm al-Fahm was given local council status by the Israeli government. In 1965-1985, it was governed by elected councils. In 1985, Umm al-Fahm was given official city status.
According to CBS, in 2001 the ethnic makeup of the city was 100.0% Arab (99.7% Muslim), with no significant Jewish population.There were 18,700 males and 18,000 females (36,800 total), with 51.2% of the population aged 19 years of age or younger, 18.2% between 20 and 29, 18.9% between 30 and 44, 7.8% from 45 to 59, 1.5% from 60 to 64, and 2.4% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 3.2%.