Roberto Calvi (Milan, 13 April 1920 – London, 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed by the press as "God's Banker", due to his close association with the Vatican. A native of Milan, Calvi was the chairman of Banco Ambrosiano which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals, and his death in London in June 1982 has been the source of enduring controversy. Calvi's death was ruled as murder after two coroner's inquests and an independent investigation, and, in June 2007, five people were acquitted of his murder after a trial in Rome.
Claims have been made that Calvi's death involved the Vatican Bank (Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder), the Mafia (which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering), and the Propaganda Due or P2 masonic lodge.
Roberto Calvi was the chairman of Italy's second largest private bank, Banco Ambrosiano, when it went bankrupt in 1982. In 1978, the Bank of Italy had produced a report on the Banco Ambrosiano which found that several billion lire had been exported illegally. This led to criminal investigations. In 1981, Calvi was put on trial and given a four-year suspended sentence and a $19.8 million fine for taking $27 million out of the country in violation of Italian currency laws. He was released on bail pending an appeal and kept his position at the bank. During his short spell in jail, he attempted suicide. Calvi's family maintain that he had been manipulated by others and that he was innocent of the crimes attributed to him.