Ionatron awarded Army research contract

TUCSON, Sept. 14 (UPI) -- The U.S. Army Research Office announced Arizona-based Ionatron Inc. has been contracted for continued development of light filament sensor technology.

ICx to develop bio-aerosol sensor

ALBUQUERQUE, Sept. 4 (UPI) -- U.S. Department of Homeland Security has contracted New Mexico-based ICx Technologies to develop a bio-aerosol sensor.

Boeing, L-3 deliver CF-18 to Canada

ST. LOUIS, Aug. 22 (UPI) -- Boeing and L-3 Communications MAS, Inc., have sent their first modernized CF-18 fighter to Canada.

Metastatic melanoma chemotherapy studied

ROCHESTER, Minn., June 4 (UPI) -- A U.S. study found two chemotherapy drugs with an agent that prevents blood vessel growth delayed tumor spread in metastatic melanoma patients.

Study: New MS drug appears safe, effective

MONTREAL, May 3 (UPI) -- Canadian scientists say a new multiple sclerosis drug undergoing trials appears to be safe and effective.

Rockefeller: Cheney pressured committee

WASHINGTON, Jan. 25 (UPI) -- Vice President Dick Cheney tried to stall a Senate investigation into flawed intelligence on Iraq, Sen. Jay Rockefeller, D-W.Va., said Thursday.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is studied

BUFFALO, N.Y., Dec. 5 (UPI) -- U.S. scientists say patients treated with lenalidomide for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia have shown a major positive response to the therapy.

Pfizer shares tumbling on halted test

FRANKFURT, Germany, Dec. 4 (UPI) -- Shares of Pfizer Inc., the New York drug giant, tumbled Monday in European trading after a key cholesterol medicine prospect was being halted.

Merck buys Sirna Therapeutics for $1.1B

WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J., Oct. 31 (UPI) -- Pharmaceutical giant Merck & Co. Inc. Tuesday said it will pay $1.1 billion in cash to buy San Francisco's Sirna Therapeutics Inc. Sirna specializes in making medicines based on RNA interference technology, which enables "an entirely novel approach to dis

Phase II Study: Revlimid successful

TAMPA, Fla., Oct. 12 (UPI) -- U.S. scientists say a Phase II trial of Revlimid in patients with incurable blood cancer has produced positive results.

Allergy drug also a malaria fighter

BALTIMORE, July 5 (UPI) -- U.S. scientists report they have found the allergy drug astemizole can also control malarial infection by interfering with a key process of the parasite.

Dodsal lands big Qatar desalination job

DOHA, Qatar, April 12 (UPI) -- Dodsal Group, located in Dubai, won a $951 million contract from Qatar Petroleum for work on a desalination project.

Stem cell heart cure begins clinical trial

DEERFIELD, Ill., March 7 (UPI) -- Baxter International of Deerfield, Ill., Tuesday announced a clinical trial using stem cells to rebuild failing hearts.

Covalent, Remedium to merge, form Encorium

WAYNE, Pa., March 3 (UPI) -- Covalent Group Inc. said Friday it is paying $20 million to buy Finland's Remedium Oy, a clinical research group.

AstraZeneca licenses Alzheimer's drug

LONDON, Dec. 28 (UPI) -- Britain's AstraZeneca PLC licensed a Targacept Inc. compound that treats Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.
Page 6 of 10
Phase II
Sen. John Rockefeller (D-WV) speaks on Phase II investigation of prewar intelligence at a press conference on Capitol Hill in Washington on November 4, 2005. (UPI/Photo Kevin Dietsch)

Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research and drug development that are conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g., drugs, diagnostics, devices, therapy protocols). These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the non-clinical safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the country where the trial is taking place.

Depending on the type of product and the stage of its development, investigators enroll healthy volunteers and/or patients into small pilot studies initially, followed by larger scale studies in patients that often compare the new product with the currently prescribed treatment. As positive safety and efficacy data are gathered, the number of patients is typically increased. Clinical trials can vary in size from a single center in one country to multicenter trials in multiple countries.

Due to the sizable cost a full series of clinical trials may incur, the burden of paying for all the necessary people and services is usually borne by the sponsor who may be a governmental organization, a pharmaceutical, or biotechnology company. Since the diversity of roles may exceed resources of the sponsor, often a clinical trial is managed by an outsourced partner such as a contract research organization or a clinical trials unit in the academic sector.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phase II."
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