Arthritis drug holds promise for psoriasis

NEW ORLEANS, Feb. 26 (UPI) -- Embrel, a drug approved in 1998 for rheumatoid arthritis and in 2002 for psoriatic arthritis, also may be an effective treatment for psoriasis, researchers reported Tuesday at the American Academy of Dermatology annual meeting.

Ultrasound aids stroke treatment

SAN ANTONIO, Feb. 8 (UPI) -- Surgeons use sound waves to pulverize gallstones and now stroke experts are trying to determine if less powerful ultrasound can improve the efficacy of the clot-busting drugs used to restore blood flow to the brain. Dr. Andrei Alexandrov, of the Univers
PEGGY PECK, UPI Science News

Enron's Indian venture's bidding terms set

CALCUTTA, India, Jan. 22 (UPI) -- The sale of bankrupt Enron Corp's 65 percent stake (and the 20 percent belonging to GE and Bechtel) in its Indian subsidiary, the Dabhol Power Company took a decisive turn yesterday with its lenders announcing their selling terms and a detailed four-month
INDRAJIT BASU, UPI Business Correspondent

Executive Business Briefing

Here is a look at more of Tuesday's top business stories:

Health Tips

ALEX CUKAN, UPI Science and Health Writer

Executive Business Briefing

Here is a look at more of Thursday's top business stories:

Executive Business Briefing

Here is a look at more of Tuesday's top business stories:

Bush reopens Reagan National Airport

WASHINGTON, Oct. 2 (UPI) -- President Bush said Tuesday that flights could resume from Reagan National Airport on Thursday, more than three weeks after terrorist attacks on New York and Washington led to its closure.
KATHY A. GAMBRELL, White House reporter
Page 10 of 10
Phase II
Sen. John Rockefeller (D-WV) speaks on Phase II investigation of prewar intelligence at a press conference on Capitol Hill in Washington on November 4, 2005. (UPI/Photo Kevin Dietsch)

Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research and drug development that are conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g., drugs, diagnostics, devices, therapy protocols). These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the non-clinical safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the country where the trial is taking place.

Depending on the type of product and the stage of its development, investigators enroll healthy volunteers and/or patients into small pilot studies initially, followed by larger scale studies in patients that often compare the new product with the currently prescribed treatment. As positive safety and efficacy data are gathered, the number of patients is typically increased. Clinical trials can vary in size from a single center in one country to multicenter trials in multiple countries.

Due to the sizable cost a full series of clinical trials may incur, the burden of paying for all the necessary people and services is usually borne by the sponsor who may be a governmental organization, a pharmaceutical, or biotechnology company. Since the diversity of roles may exceed resources of the sponsor, often a clinical trial is managed by an outsourced partner such as a contract research organization or a clinical trials unit in the academic sector.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phase II."
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