Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرویز مشرف, born 11 August 1943), is a retired four star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and 10th President of Pakistan as well as 10th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled Pakistan as Chief Executive from 1999–2001 and as President from 2001-08. In the face of impeachment, he resigned on 18 August 2008.
After years of military service, he rose to prominence when Prime Minister Navaz Sharif appointed him Chief of Army Staff in October 1998 when he super headed three most senior generals, notable General Ali Kuli Khan. Sharif appointed him as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, despite he was unqualified for the post as of the merit. This appointment of Sharif forced Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Fasih Bokhari to resign from the Navy who was rightfully deserving officer for this assignment. Musharraf was the strategic mastermind behind the Kargil infiltration and the provided a vital support to unannounced Pakistan war in Afghanistan where he sent thousands of Pakistan Army's young soldiers and paramilitary staff to participate in the war against the Northern Alliance. After months of contentious relations, he took power through a bloodless military coup on Sharif's democratically elected government, and placed in under house-arrest later shifted him Adiala Jail.
As Pakistan's head of state, he was a U.S. ally in the War on Terror. He was credited with the development of Pakistan's economy during the early years of his rule. His limited popularity suffered after his suspension of the Supreme Court Chief Justice and the Lal Masjid siege. His attempt to institute emergency rule failed as calls for his impeachment escalated. The return of Benazir Bhutto and Navaz Sharif from exile fast-tracked the nation towards parliamentary democracy ending Musharraf's reign.