Paul Charlton (2 November 1856 – 3 June 1917) was a United States District Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico from 1911 to 1913.
Charlton was born in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and studied law at Yale University as a classmate of future President William Howard Taft and Puerto Rico Governor William H. Hunt. Prior to his two years on the bench, he served as legal counsel for the War Department's Bureau of Insular Affairs, which was responsible for the U.S. Government's administration of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
Charlton was appointed as the federal judge in Puerto Rico by President Taft in 1911. He served until 26 March 1913 and was succeeded by Peter J. Hamilton. He remained in Puerto Rico, practicing law in San Juan.