Distant galaxy shows remnants of cosmic collision and merger

Distant galaxy shows remnants of cosmic collision and merger

COPENHAGEN, Denmark, Feb. 24 (UPI) -- A stream of stars in a distant galaxy is evidence of an unexpected cosmic collision and merger between two dwarf galaxies, Danish astrophysicists say.

Scientists probe mystery of early 'dead' galaxies in the universe

COPENHAGEN, Denmark, Jan. 30 (UPI) -- Danish scientists say cosmic collisions created enormously massive galaxies already old and no longer forming new stars in the very early universe.

List of Nobel Prize in Physics winners

STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Oct. 8 (UPI) -- List of Nobel Prize in Physics winners:

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Millimeter-sized 'Bohr atom' is created

HOUSTON, July 2 (UPI) -- Nearly a century after Danish physicist Niels Bohr created the first model of the atom, U.S.-led physicists say they've created millimeter-sized atoms.

Pioneering physicist John A. Wheeler dies

HIGHTSTOWN, N.J., April 15 (UPI) -- John A. Wheeler, a pioneering physicist who gave black holes their name, has died of pneumonia at age 96 at his home in New Jersey.

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Stars may fade with whimper, not bang

COPENHAGEN, Denmark, Dec. 21 (UPI) -- The death of a star may not be as spectacular as previously thought, Danish researchers said.

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Majority in poll identify Einstein

WASHINGTON, Nov. 17 (UPI) -- Albert Einstein is far better known than actor Russell Crowe or Jebb Bush, according to an informal poll taken at the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

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Ancient plant life found in Greenland

NUUK, Greenland, Aug. 17 (UPI) -- An international team of scientists has found possible ancient plant matter in Greenland's ice.
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Niels Bohr
This artist's rendering shows a view of NASA's Mars Rover as it sets off roam the surface of the red planet. The first of twin rovers, Spirit, is expected to begin taking pictures within hours of landing on January 3, 2003. The rover is about the size of a golf cart and will carry five scientific instruments and rock abrading device. The Panoramic Camera and the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer are located on the large mast shown on the front of the rover. The camera will be supplied by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; and the spectrometer will be supplied by Arizona State University in Tempe. The payload also includes magnetic targets, provided by the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, that will collect magnetic dust for further study by the science instruments. In a landing similar to that of the 1997 Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, a parachute will deploy to slow the spacecraft down and airbags will inflate to cushion the landing. (UPI Photo/NASA)

Niels Henrik David Bohr (Danish pronunciation: ; 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr mentored and collaborated with many of the top physicists of the century at his institute in Copenhagen. He was part of a team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons, Aage Bohr, grew up to be an important physicist who in 1975 also received the Nobel prize. Bohr has been described as one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century.

Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1885. His father, Christian Bohr, a devout Lutheran, was professor of physiology at the University of Copenhagen (it is his name which is given to the Bohr shift or Bohr effect), while his mother, Ellen Adler Bohr, came from a wealthy Jewish family prominent in Danish banking and parliamentary circles. His brother was Harald Bohr, a mathematician and Olympic footballer who played on the Danish national team. Niels Bohr was a passionate footballer as well, and the two brothers played a number of matches for the Copenhagen-based Akademisk Boldklub, with Niels in goal. There is, however, no truth in the oft-repeated claim that Niels Bohr emulated his brother Harald by playing for the Danish national team.

In 1903 Bohr enrolled as an undergraduate at Copenhagen University, initially studying philosophy and mathematics. In 1905, prompted by a gold medal competition sponsored by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, he conducted a series of experiments to examine the properties of surface tension, using his father's laboratory in the university, familiar to him from assisting there since childhood. His essay won the prize, and it was this success that decided Bohr to abandon philosophy and adopt physics. As a student under Christian Christiansen he received his doctorate in 1911. As a post-doctoral student, Bohr first conducted experiments under J. J. Thomson at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1912 he joined Ernest Rutherford at Manchester University and he adapted Rutherford's nuclear structure to Max Planck's quantum theory and so obtained a theory of atomic structure which, with later improvements, mainly as a result of Heisenberg's concepts, remains valid to this day. On the basis of Rutherford's theories, Bohr published his model of atomic structure in 1913, introducing the theory of electrons traveling in orbits around the atom's nucleus, the chemical properties of the element being largely determined by the number of electrons in the outer orbits. Bohr introduced the idea that an electron could drop from a higher-energy orbit to a lower one, emitting a photon (light quantum) of discrete energy. This became a basis for quantum theory. After four productive years with Ernest Rutherford in Manchester, Bohr returned to Denmark becoming in 1918 director of the newly created Institute of Theoretical Physics.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Niels Bohr."
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