Dr Mowaffak Baqer al-Rubaie (alternative transliterations Muwaffaq al-Rubaie and Muwaffaq al-Rubay'i) (Arabic: موفق الربيعي) is an Iraqi politician, and the current Iraqi National Security Advisor in the government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. He was elected to the Iraqi Council of Representatives in December 2005 as a nominee of the United Iraqi Alliance.
A Shia Muslim and neurologist by training, al-Rabai'i was born in Kadhimiya and left Iraq in the early 1980s to study in Britain. There he became a member of the British Royal College of Physicians who practiced internal medicine and neurology and also went into publishing. In London he became a spokesman for the Islamic Dawa Party.
After the United States's 2003 invasion of Iraq he was appointed a member of the Iraqi Governing Council. In April 2004 he was appointed National Security Advisor by the Coalition Provisional Authority. He held this post until September 2004, when he was replaced by Qassim Daoud following a disagreement with then Prime Minister Iyad Allawi over how to deal with Muqtada al-Sadr.