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The almanac

UPI Almanac for Wednesday, March 26, 2014.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Monday, Oct. 28, 2013.
By United Press International

Polio vaccine pioneer Koprowski dead at 96

WYNNEWOOD, Pa., April 14 (UPI) -- Hilary Koprowski, a researcher who did pioneering work on the polio vaccine, has died of pneumonia at his home near Philadelphia, his son said. He was 96.

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Friday, April 12, 2013.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Tuesday, March 26, 2013.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Sunday, Oct. 28, 2012.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Thursday, April 12, 2012.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Monday, March 26, 2012.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Friday, Oct. 28, 2011.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Tuesday, Oct. 28, 2008.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Saturday, April 12, 2008.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Wednesday, March 26, 2008.
By United Press International

The almanac

UPI Almanac for Sunday, Oct. 28, 2007.
By United Press International

Richard Carter, author and reporter, dies

NEW CITY, N.Y., Sept. 8 (UPI) -- Richard Carter, a New York newspaperman and author who became best-known for the horse racing books he wrote as Tom Ainslie, has died at age 89.

Calif. Hall of Fame inductees announced

SACRAMENTO, Aug. 20 (UPI) -- Computer whiz Steve Jobs will lead a baker's dozen of celebrities into the California Hall of Fame this year.
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Photos
Jonas Salk
Dr Peter Salk accepts the Spirit of California Medal from Governor Schwarzenegger, on behalf of his father Jonas Salk, who was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, with 12 other Californians during a ceremony, at the California Museum for History, Women and the Arts, in Sacramento, California, on December 5, 2007. (UPI Photo/Ken James)
Wiki

Jonas E. Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first safe and effective polio vaccine. He was born in New York City to parents from Ashkenazi Jewish Russian immigrant families. Although they themselves did not have much formal education, they were determined to see their children succeed. While attending New York University School of Medicine, he stood out from his peers not just because of his academic prowess, but because he chose to do medical research instead of becoming a physician.

Until 1955, when the Salk vaccine was introduced, polio was considered the most frightening public health problem of the post-war United States. Annual epidemics were increasingly devastating. The 1952 epidemic was the worst outbreak in the nation's history. Of nearly 58,000 cases reported that year, 3,145 people died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis, with most of the victims children. The "public reaction was to a plague", said historian William O'Neill. "Citizens of urban areas were to be terrified every summer when this frightful visitor returned." According to a 2009 PBS documentary, "Apart from the atomic bomb, America's greatest fear was polio." As a result, scientists were in a frantic race to find a way to prevent or cure the disease. U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt was the world's most recognized victim of the disease and founded the organization that would fund the development of a vaccine.

In 1947, Salk accepted an appointment to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In 1948, he undertook a project funded by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to determine the number of different types of polio virus. Salk saw an opportunity to extend this project towards developing a vaccine against polio, and, together with the skilled research team he assembled, devoted himself to this work for the next seven years. The field trial set up to test the Salk vaccine was, according to O'Neill, "the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers." Over 1,800,000 school children took part in the trial. When news of the vaccine's success was made public on April 12, 1955, Salk was hailed as a "miracle worker", and the day "almost became a national holiday." His sole focus had been to develop a safe and effective vaccine as rapidly as possible, with no interest in personal profit. When he was asked in a televised interview who owned the patent to the vaccine, Salk replied: "There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?"

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Jonas Salk."
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