John Quincy Adams (i/ˈkwɪnzi/; July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was the sixth President of the United States (1825–1829). He was also an American diplomat and served in both the Senate and House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of former President John Adams and Abigail Adams. As a diplomat, Adams was involved in many international negotiations, and as Secretary of State, he helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine. Historians agree he was one of the great diplomats in American history.
As president, he proposed a program of modernization and educational advancement, but Congress, controlled by his enemies, stymied him. Adams lost his 1828 bid for re-election to Andrew Jackson. In doing so, he became the first President since his father to serve a single term. As president, he envisioned a plan for national greatness resting on economic growth and a strong federal government, but his presidency was not a success as he lacked political adroitness, popularity or a network of supporters, and ran afoul of politicians eager to undercut him.
Adams is best known as a diplomat who shaped America's foreign policy in line with his conservative and ardently nationalist commitment to America's republican values. More recently Howe (2007) portrayed Adams as the exemplar and moral leader in an era of modernization when new technologies and networks of infrastructure and communication brought to the people messages of religious revival, social reform, and party politics, as well as moving goods, money and people ever more rapidly and efficiently.