Belfast mayor jostled by loyalist crowd at park re-opening event

BELFAST, Northern Ireland, Aug. 8 (UPI) -- The mayor of Belfast said this week the "anti-peace elements" will not win in Northern Ireland after he was roughed up by loyalist protesters at an event.

Belfast parade protest avoids violent ending

BELFAST, Northern Ireland, July 20 (UPI) -- A loyalist protest parade in Northern Ireland Saturday went off peacefully after a similar parade recently ended in violence and riots, officials said.

Belfast officials hope for family friendly July 12

BELFAST, Northern Ireland, July 9 (UPI) -- Officials in Northern Ireland's capital hope this year's Belfast OrangeFest will be a celebration of community and not a trigger for renewed sectarian violence.

Orange Order: No need for parade permits

BELFAST, Northern Ireland, Feb. 23 (UPI) -- The Protestant Orange Order may stop giving the Parades Commission in Northern Ireland advance notice of its marches, its grand chaplain says.

Thousands march in Protestant parades

BELFAST, Northern Ireland, July 13 (UPI) -- Thousands of Protestants participated Saturday in traditional July 12 marches in Northern Ireland.

Can Orange parades become tourist lure?

BELFAST, Northern Ireland, Nov. 30 (UPI) -- The Orange Order in Northern Ireland, long known for its militant anti-Catholicism, now hopes to turn its traditions into a tourist attraction.

Watercooler Stories

British youngsters ignorant of history ... Radio station set to sacrifice Republican ... Man saves wife in 150-foot alpine fall ... Laura to Jenna: Keep the tongue in ... Watercooler stories from UPI.
By United Press International

British youngsters ignorant of history

LONDON, Aug. 5 (UPI) -- A BBC poll finds many British young people have trouble distinguishing fiction from history.

Thousands parade through Northern Ireland

BELFAST, Ireland, July 12 (UPI) -- Thousands of Orangemen paraded through Northern Ireland Saturday to celebrate the Protestants' victory over the Catholics on July 12, 1690.

Drumcree march ends peacefully

PORTADOWN, Ireland, July 6 (UPI) -- Thousands of police and troops kept Protestants and Catholics apart Sunday during the most emotionally-charged parade of Northern Ireland's marching season.

COMMENTARY: How tolerant are the British?

LOS ANGELES, Aug. 14 (UPI) -- Since Sept. 11, there has been much chest-thumping among American professional pundits -- and even more so among the countless amateur "bloggers" who have sprun
STEVE SAILER, UPI National Correspondent

The New Library of Alexandria

ALEXANDRIA, Egypt, April 3 (UPI) -- "The sights of Alexandria are in themselves not interesting, but they fascinate when we approach them through the past," wrote E.M. Forster in his 1922 book, "A

The Bear's Lair: Boomers' bursting bubble

WASHINGTON, Feb. 19 (UPI) -- As the pattern of overstretched accounting and unexpected bankruptcies widens, it is becoming clear that in the U.S. we are facing a once-in-a-generation financial meltdown, whatever the effects on the real economy.
MARTIN HUTCHINSON, UPI Business and Economics Editor

James II & VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Some of James's subjects were unhappy with James's belief in absolute monarchy and opposed his religious policies, leading a group of them to depose him in the Glorious Revolution. The Parliament of England deemed James to have abdicated on 11 December 1688. The Parliament of Scotland on 11 April 1689 declared him to have forfeited the throne. He was replaced not by his Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by his Protestant daughter, Mary II, and his son-in-law, William III. William and Mary became joint rulers in 1689. James II made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in the summer of 1690, James returned to France. He lived out the rest of his life under the protection of his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV.

James is best known for his belief in absolute monarchy and his attempts to create religious liberty for his subjects. Both of these went against the wishes of the English Parliament and of most of his subjects. Parliament, opposed to the growth of absolutism that was occurring in other European countries, as well as to the loss of legal supremacy for the Church of England, saw their opposition as a way to preserve what they regarded as traditional English liberties. This tension made James's three-year reign a struggle for supremacy between the English Parliament and the Crown, resulting in his deposition, the passage of the English Bill of Rights, and the Hanoverian succession.

James, the second surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St. James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633. Later that same year, James was baptized by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. James was educated by tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham, George and Francis Villiers. At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral; the position was initially honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration, when James was an adult.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "James II."
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