Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (16 August 1845 – 13 July 1921) was a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, and Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, later known as the Lippmann plate.
Lippmann was born to Franco-Jewish parents in Bonnevoie (former commune of Hollerich), Luxemburg. When Gabriel was three, his family moved back to France, to live in Paris, where he was homeschooled.
He is remembered for the innovations that resulted from his search for a direct color-sensitive medium in photography. He was one of the founders of the Institut d'optique théorique et appliquée in France. He also invented an electrometer that was used in the first ECG machine.