Crude oil tops $103

NEW YORK, July 5 (UPI) -- Crude oil prices in New York topped $103 per barrel Friday morning in a continuing reaction to tensions in Egypt.

Zimbabwe court upholds date of elections

HARARE, Zimbabwe, July 5 (UPI) -- Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court unanimously rejected five appeals to delay elections that are set for July 31, court officials said Friday.
Mansour sworn in as Egypt's interim president; 10 killed in clashes

Mansour sworn in as Egypt's interim president; 10 killed in clashes

CAIRO, July 4 (UPI) -- Egypt's interim President Adly Mansour was sworn in Thursday, saying the source of his presidential power is "the great people of Egypt."
Obama 'deeply concerned' by Morsi ouster

Obama 'deeply concerned' by Morsi ouster

CAIRO, July 3 (UPI) -- U.S. President Barack Obama said he is "deeply concerned" after Egypt's military ousted President Mohamed Morsi and suspended the constitution Wednesday.

Council of Europe assembly rejects democracy monitoring for Hungary

STRASBOURG, France, June 27 (UPI) -- The Council of Europe this week opted not to put Hungary on a list of member countries it officially monitors for adherence to rule of law standards.
Bolivians unhappy with Morales seeking third term

Bolivians unhappy with Morales seeking third term

LA PAZ, Bolivia, June 21 (UPI) -- Bolivians are beginning to voice disquiet over the way President Evo Morales is preparing to prolong his rule through constitutional devices that will likely enable him to seek re-election for a third term.

New Moldova P.M. Leanca says country remains on pro-EU course

CHISINAU, Moldova, June 18 (UPI) -- Moldova's new prime minister says recent political upheaval and corruption concerns in the former Soviet state won't hinder its pro-European Union course.

Court orders Kuwait Parliament dissolved

KUWAIT CITY, June 16 (UPI) -- Kuwait's supreme court Sunday ordered the gulf nation's Parliament to be dissolved due a technicality involving an amendment to the country's election laws.

Hungarian minister blasts EU's 'false conclusions' on civil liberties

BUDAPEST, Hungary, June 13 (UPI) -- EU critics are drawing "false conclusions" about the state of civil liberties and the rule of law in Hungary, the country's European Affairs minister says.

Electoral law for Egypt's upper house deemed unconstitutional

CAIRO, June 2 (UPI) -- Egypt's Supreme Constitutional Court ruled Sunday the law under which the Shura Council, or upper house, was elected, is unconstitutional.

Guatemalan general's war crime conviction, sentence overturned

GUATEMALA CITY, May 21 (UPI) -- The Constitutional Court, the highest court in Guatemala, voided the genocide conviction and prison term of former dictator Gen. Efrain Rios Montt.

Hungary awaiting specifics on EU objections to constitutional changes

BUDAPEST, Hungary, May 2 (UPI) -- Hungary is awaiting "concrete objections" from the European Commission over controversial changes to its constitution, Foreign Minister Janos Martonyi says.

Russian voters given more leeway

MOSCOW, April 22 (UPI) -- Russian voters have more rights to challenge their ability to take part in the political process, the Russian constitutional court ruled Monday.

Change would tax Hungarian twice for EU violations

BRUSSELS, April 18 (UPI) -- Hungary will penalize its citizens twice to pay for any fines incurred when the government breaks European Union laws, says an EU official.

German anti-racism rally staged ahead of right-wing terror trial

MUNICH, Germany, April 15 (UPI) -- Thousands of anti-racism demonstrators marched in Munich, Germany, over the weekend ahead of a murder trial for five suspected neo-Nazi group members.
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Constitutional Court
Supporters of Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovich rally outside the Constitutional Court in Kiev on April 20, 2007. Yanukovich expressed his hope on Friday to eliminate all differences next week with President Yushchenko and end a standoff over the president's dissolution of parliament. (UPI Photo/Sergey Starostenko)

A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law. Its main authority is to rule on whether or not laws that are challenged are in fact unconstitutional, i.e. whether or not they conflict with constitutionally established rights and freedoms.

The list in this article is of countries that have a separate constitutional court. Many countries do not have separate constitutional courts, but instead delegate constitutional judicial authority to their supreme court. Nonetheless, such courts are sometimes also called "constitutional courts"; for example, some have called the Supreme Court of the United States "the world's oldest constitutional court" because it was the first court in the world to invalidate a law as unconstitutional (Marbury v. Madison), even though it is not a separate constitutional court. Austria established the world's first separate constitutional court, conceptualised by Hans Kelsen, in 1920 (though it was suspended, along with the constitution that created it, from 1934 to 1945); before that, only the U.S. and Australia had adopted the concept of judicial review through their supreme courts.

Countries with separate constitutional courts include:

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Constitutional Court."
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