Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) (born August 25, 1934) is an influential Iranian politician, writer, who was the fourth President of Iran. He was a member of the Assembly of Experts until his resignation in 2011 (a deliberative body of Mujtahids that is charged with electing, monitoring, and dismissing the Supreme Leader of Iran). Despite his resignation from the Assembly of Experts, he continues to hold his position as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran (an unelected administrative assembly that resolves legislative conflicts between the Majlis (Parliament) and the Council of Guardians).
Rafsanjani served as President of Iran from 1989 to 1997. In 2005 he ran for a third term in office, placing first in the first round of elections but ultimately losing to rival Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the run-off round of the 2005 election. He was also elected as the Chairman of Iranian parliament in 1980 and served until 1989. In 1980, Rafsanjani survived an assassination attempt, during which he was seriously injured.
Rafsanjani has been described as a centrist and a "pragmatic conservative". He supports a free market position domestically, favoring privatization of state-owned industries, and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States and the West.