The four-time All-Star, who missed the end of last season with a torn ACL, has been working his way back, making his season debut on January 17.
"He's sore from the continued extended minutes and the burst that he played with with (Wednesday) night," said Celtics head coach Bradley Stevens.
Rondo scored eight points, with nine rebounds and 11 assists in 32 minutes of play in Boston's 114-108 victory over the Philadelphia 76ers.
Avery Bradley also sat out the practice with soreness in his right ankle, apparently from an injury that caused him to miss five games earlier this season.
"I've just been trying to fight through the pain," Bradley said. "It just gave out on me a little bit."
And Vitor Faverani, who injured his left knee between stints with the D-League Maine Red Claws, said he's headed to get it checked out.
"It still hurts," Faverani said. "After last game, it hurt really, really bad. We are going to see the doctor right after practice today".
The Celtics hold a 17-33 record on the season.