The harsh remarks were said in response to criticism that some Iranian officials were becoming too close with Western officials, including in the context of the nuclear negotiations.
"Some who are politically timid and cowardly do not have the confidence and they assume everyone is like them," Rouhani said at a meeting of Iran's ambassadors. "Whenever negotiations start, they say they are shaking -- to hell, go and find a warm place for yourself."
"The administration has done something big ... One of these examples is the Geneva agreement and if some are not thankful for these efforts, sooner or later they will be and history will have its own judgment."
Rouhani emphasized that Iran's participation in nuclear negotiations and adherence to reducing its enriched uranium stockpile per the agreed-upon Joint Plan of Action has resulted in reduced sanctions.
"The foundations of sanctions have been broken and I have no doubt in this and we should know that the previous situation will not return... In the negotiations with the P5+1, we are in the process breaking the sanctions, and they know how we break the sanctions."
Delegates from Britain, France, Germany, China, Russia, and the United States -- known as the E3+3 or P5+1 -- met with Iranian officials throughout 2013 to negotiate a cessation or reduction in Iran's nuclear program. The JPOA was signed on November 24, 2013, and went into effect on January 20.