At a meeting about the economy on Friday, Putin began by offering his condolences.
"In the name of the Russian leadership and the Government of the Russian Federation, we express our condolences to all the victims' families and the governments of the nations whose citizens were on that plane."
After a moment of silence, Putin blamed Ukraine for the downed passenger jet, which was shot down over eastern Ukraine, where pro-Russian separatists have been battling Ukrainian armed forces for months.
"And certainly, the government over whose territory it occurred is responsible for this terrible tragedy."
In a televised address on Friday about the situation in Ukraine, Obama praised the peace efforts of the Ukrainian government and condemned the provocative actions of Russia in arming and training separatists across the border.
MH17 was shot down by a surface-to-air missile in rebel-controlled territory.
"A group of separatists can't shoot down military transport planes or, they claim, shoot down fighter jets, without sophisticated equipment and sophisticated training. And that," Obama said, "is coming from Russia."