Jharkhand police chief Rajiv Kumar told the BBC "This rape happened out of retaliation... The day before, on 6 July, the wife of the accused was the victim of misbehavior on the part of the girl's brother. The head of the village was instrumental in provoking this rape on the victim."
Kumar said he had never before encountered such a case.
The girl's suspected assailant, the village elder, and her brother were arrested.
Sexual violence against women in India has sparked public outrage. In May, two girls, ages 14 and 16, were gang-raped and hanged in the Budaun district in Uttar Pradesh state. Protesters took to the streets to call for an end to sexual violence against women and girls.